AGRICULTURE


 

 
The agriculture sector plays an important role in the economy of Montenegro, including the capital city Podgorica. While agriculture, along with the tourism sector, is development and economic development priorities of the national economy, based on official statistics in agriculture is constantly employed only 1.5% of total employment in Montenegro.

Favourable climatic and soil conditions (Zeta, Malesia, Bjelopavlici), with the possibility of irrigation, enabling early maturing fruit and a long period of fruiting, and therefore significant revenues.

When it comes to the northern part of the Capital, there is a large number of farms, with small live stock (cattle, sheep, goats). Livestock sector is characterized by small farms, a high level of fragmentation of agricultural farming plots, low level of modernization of agricultural holdings and lack of investment capital.

Also, different elevation offers the possibility of growing different cultures, from early vegetables, fruits and vineyards to breeding animals at the rich mountain pastures. Preserved environment enables the production of a wide range of traditional agricultural products.
The amount of arable land at the national level is approximately 36.67% and 12.05%, if the arable land we consider only arable land and fields, and orchards and vineyards. A similar situation regarding the utilization of arable land is at the level of the Capital. The arable land makes 34% of total agricultural land, while the much larger share of pastures, about 63%. If, in the context of arable land we consider only arable land and fields, orchards and vineyards, the percentage is lower, at around 16.83%.

 

 

Plant and Livestock production
 
- Crop production
 
From field crops are the most represented grains, corn and wheat, which has a growing trend of slight growth.
- Horticultural production
 
In vegetable production: potatoes, watermelon, cantaloupe, tomatoes and paprika occupy an important place. In the capital the most potato products, mainly in GO Tuzi. Potato is the most important cultivated plant in Montenegro and occupies the largest agricultural areas, because the production is possible at different altitudes. This year, on the territory of the capital is about 700 ha planted potatoes.
- Production in greenhouses
 
Production in Protected area - greenhouses, the area of ​​the Capital - Podgorica, at the level of last year. In the area of ​​Skadar basin, where this production is the most represented, with over 25 hectares of land in a protected area. Manufacturers in this region are trying to come out first in the Montenegrin market production of early vegetables (lettuce, pepper, cucumber, tomato) and to meet the needs of citizens in this period. However, most of these greenhouses was not made according to the standards, because of the need of large investments, so manufacturers often suffer severe damage from natural disasters in the greenhouses.

- Vineyards

Since the entry into force of the Law on Wine (2007) there were 341 individual growers and winemakers from the area of the Capital with 921,474 grapevines.

The register of grape and wine is added and the Biotechnical Faculty with 63,953 vines Plantations "13 July" with 9,033,312 vines, which means that a total of 10,018,736 registered grapevines in the area of ​​the Capital.

The following tabular overview presents data on the number of growers and the number of vines in the Capital City - Podgorica: 

 Table 1: Number of registered producers and grapevines

 

Number of registered growers

Number enrolled vines

Private sector

13.Jul AD „Plantaze“

Biotechnical Faculty Podgorica

339

1

1

921.474

9.033.312

63.953

IN TOTAL:

341

10.018.736 


Summary Table shows data on registered producers of grapes in individual sectors, as well as the number of vines per year:

Table 2: Number of registered private producers and their vines age

    Year

    Number of registered growers

    Number enrolled vines

    2008

    2009

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2013

    2014

    2015

    31

    26

    10

    56

    116

    70

    17

    13

    53.020

    154.990

    41.010

    188.910

    159.560

    235.234

    41.300

    47.450

    In total - private sector:

    339

    921.474


    The following graphs show how the year grew registered - number of registered growers, as well as grapevines:

    Figure 1: Number vines wine by type of producers
    Figure 2: Number of registered vine

      Fruit growing

      Montenegrin horticulture sector is characterized by high fragmentation. When it comes to Capital Podgorica evident similarity with Montenegro. Almost all rural households cultivated fruits, mainly for their own consumption and processing. Due to growing demand, the development of rural tourism, fruit production should be developed to meet the needs of the market.


      Livestock breeding


      In livestock production, the ratio of production to the level of the Capital and at the national level provides a significantly different picture. This is a branch of agriculture that is much less prevalent in Podgorica, compared to the vegetable. Underdevelopment is caused by livestock production, primarily fragmented farms - Extensive traditional method of production, as well as underutilized available natural resources.

       

      The capital has natural resources (meadows and pastures), which are under-utilized for the development of livestock production.

       

      Data on livestock, the last few years show that the livestock is declining as a result, in the first place leaving (depopulation) of the village, as well as the urbanization of individual settlements capital of Podgorica. Livestock dominates in rural areas and the main occupation of the rural population. Livestock is perfect because it is in the northern area of ​​the capital mainly agricultural land - meadows, pastures, thickets and underbrush.

      Beekeeping

      Beekeeping has a long and rich tradition in Montenegro, and therefore in the Capital City. Large areas covered by natural meadows and pastures with karst regions rich in flora and with a lot of different honey plants provide favorable conditions for bee-keeping.

      In Montenegro, there are about 50,000 beehives, of which 10,000 in the capital, with the production of honey of about 100 tons, or 10 kg per hive.

      - Organic farming

       

      Agricultural land and water resources of Montenegro are largely preserved from industrial pollution and as such can provide the appropriate use of organic food (meat and dairy products, honey, fish, vegetables, fruits, and natural clean drinking water). Thus, there is great potential for organic production. Bearing in mind that the systems of agricultural production is largely extensive and limited use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, it is evident that the transition to organic production methods less complicated.

      Since 2007, "Monteorganica" as a certification body for the registration of organic production, the registration of manufacturers who are engaged in this type of production on the territory of Montenegro. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Montenegro, and the bodies of control and certification, the number of applicants for registration of producers of this production amounts to 240. However, only one hundred of them in the process of establishing organic production, ie getting the correct character. Our market for organic production is just being formed, so that it does not have enough organic products and usually have no trouble finding their way to the consumer.

      When it comes to the area of ​​the Capital, 6 producers registered in the Register of Organic Agriculture, of which 4 in the transitional period, a 2 certified as an organic product and honey, wild figs and pomegranates.